Biology Tutorials >适应教程 >Animal Water Regulation

Animal Water Regulation

松鼠

动物对水的调节有不同的适应能力。例如,人们可以看到松鼠(sciurusvulgaris)在早上和下午的晚些时候在森林中漫步。中午时分,它们会在巢穴中休息,以避开春夏酷暑。

Homeostatic control, a set environment, and how evolution and natural selection drives a species to adapt to its environment are crucial to its survival. In more extreme ecosystems, these laws of nature are essential. These types of evolutionary changes are described below.

解剖学

These types of changes in an organism affect its actual structure, for example, birds occupying islands further away from its natural habitat may evolve to grow longer wings over time due to its more remote nature.

生理学

生理变化是有机体实际生物过程中的变化,例如,数百万年来,哺乳动物虽然多样化,但发展出不同的肢体来适应它们在环境中的活动方式,例如人类拥有灵活的手指,例如通过我们拥有的适应五指肢打字。

行为的

动物水分调节-袋鼠
Kangaroo rat hibernates during hot periods of the day to conserve water. (Image credit: National Park Service, NPS.gov)

Changes in the way an organism responds and interacts with its external environment. This is illustrated by the kangaroo water rat, an organism that hibernates during hot periods of the day to conserve water. This is an example of a behavioural adaptation in response to the prevailing conditions of the environment

这被称为休眠,所有不必要的行动和反应(即移动)都受到限制,以保存有限的资源和食物。在这样的生态系统中,生物体必须密切关注它们如何引导体内的水资源。这就是为什么我们会有很多可能的方式从我们的身体里流失水分。令人惊讶的是,我们从日常摄入中流失的大部分水都来自呼吸,因为当我们呼出时,水也伴随着废物CO2.

适应的原因

All in all, these changes are necessary for an organism, and its species to survive in a particular ecosystem. Animals (and plants) that live in an aquatic environment over time have become suited to their habitat. To other animals, this would be a problem, you may notice if you stay in the bath or swim underwater for a long period of time that your hands and feet become wrinkled. This is because osmosis is occurring between you and the aquatic environment.

The higher concentration in the external environment means that the concentration gradient of osmosis must even out, therefore the cells in our hands and feet become turgid (a higher than normal concentration of water). With this in hand, aquatic animals must perform渗透调节以确保他们身体的内部环境保持在最佳水平。请注意osmosiswill always occur until there is an equilibrium between the internal and external environment (isotonic concentration). Our genomes’ are used to dry environments, so this deviation from our body’s norm can indeed indicate that we are less suited to surviving in a water environment because we are not adapted to do so anymore, unlike our distant ancestors.

关于生物的淡水栖息地,they face the problem of continuous osmosis of water into their bodies, because their body is hypotonic in comparison to their external environment. This means that water will continue to diffuse into the fish until there is an isotonic concentration between the two environments. Since the fish would not be able to operate with such a high concentration of water in their system, evolutionary adaptations have overcome this problem. The kidneys which deal with the uptake of water are suited to their function, as the glomerulus’ of the kidney has a large surface area to reduce the concentration of water in the blood. As these kidney tubules allow a large scale movements of ions out of the bloodstream, the organism needs to reabsorb some important ions such as salt back into the bloodstream via active transport.

你可以将这种渗透调节与糖原在人类肾脏中的储存方式联系起来,因为与这一区域有关的体内平衡控制主要是为了确保生物体内的条件适合于对它的需求。这种生物体内过量的水分会由于水造成的压力而破坏细胞膜和细胞器,从而损害其内部器官,使其无法修复。

The opposite problem exists in animals that live in the ocean, where the salty water means that water is at a lower concentration than most organisms. The result here is that the organism is hypertonic to its external environment (has a higher water concentration), and must re-absorb water to remain in a healthy state. Evolutionary adaptation has also favoured these animals, and the kidneys have been anatomically altered over time to ensure the long-term survival of such organisms. The glomeruli in such organisms have a much smaller surface area, because the need to excrete ions into its external environment is not as extreme, because most water needs to be retained for survival, unlike freshwater organisms. Little salt needs to be re-absorbed due to the fact the salt-water environment can be drunk, and therefore is not as scarce as it would be for a freshwater organism.

The key point is that these organisms need to maintain an optimum water concentration in their internal environment to continue to function normally and optimally.

In more extreme environments, such as the desert, water is scarce and water must be stored in times of need, hence a camel humps.

在酷热的天气或剧烈的运动中,大量的水分会通过出汗而流失
Excretion via urine and faeces also accounts for much of our water loss
我们的许多生物过程也需要水,因此,对于这些持续的过程来说,水是一种可耗竭的资源。

行为的adaptations come into play here, as some species, such as the kangaroo rat lay in long periods of dormancy when the weather is hot, which would result in the rat losing more water through respiration than it can afford. The rat lays dormant underground in moist conditions where the concentration in water in the air and the rat’s lungs are at their minimum, therefore the least amount of water is lost to the external environment.

All these adaptations are designed for the organisms to survive more tolerably in their present habitat, and without these evolutionary changes, some of the species on the planet may not have survived to this point.

Credit:Meritnation

测验

Choose the best answer.

1. A type of change involving the physical or bodily structure
2.A change that entails the biological process
三。进化获得更长翅膀就是一个例子
4. A kangaroo rat hibernating during hot periods of the day to conserve water is an example of this type of change
5需要改变行为的改变

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Biology Tutorials >适应教程 >Animal Water Regulation

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